A real breakthrough in the pharmaceutical industry managed to make scientists in India, they created the tablet form of insulin. Moreover, the problem of the effectiveness of the new drug, animal experiments have shown not less the performance of established pills, compared with injections produced by patients with diabetes.
The problem of (more…)
Researchers from the University of East Anglia (University of East Anglia, UK) approached the problem of antibiotic resistance. A new study published in the journal Nature, reveals the mechanism by which antibiotic-resistant bacteria cells support a protective barrier.
The obtained results open the way for a new wave of drugs hitting superbugs, (more…)
Fundamental mechanisms during development
- Regulation of genes by transcription factors.
- Intercellular signaling through direct contact and morphogeny.
- Induction of shape and cell polarity.
- Moving cells.
- Programmable cell death.
Regulation of genes by transcription factors
Transcription factors control the development by altering the expression of genes, including other transcription factors. Group functioning together of (more…)
System genes homeobox (Noh), first described in fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster is the paradigm of developmental biology. Knox genes are so named because they encode proteins, transcription factors, contain a conservative linked to a DNA site called homeodomains. (The portion of a gene that encodes homeodomain called homeobox, which gave its (more…)
For growing it is critical to determine the spatial relationship between structures within the embryo. In the early stages of development of the organism is necessary to determine the relative orientation of a plurality of segments and organs of the body.For example, the direction of the head-tail is on the craniocaudal (more…)
When undifferentiated cell undergoes a process of differentiation, she makes a series of individual steps, showing different features or characteristics, until you reach your final objective (for example, when the cell precursor becomes a red blood cell, a keratinocyte, or a cardiomyocyte). In the developing body signs cells are different not (more…)
In the course of development, cells divide (reproduce), acquire new functions or structure (differencemode), move within the embryo (migrate) and undergo programmed death (often via apoptosis). These four major cellular process that act in different combinations and in different ways lead to growth and morphogenesis (literally “creation of form”), creating the (more…)
Development is determined by genes that interact with cellular and environmental surroundings. Involved gene products include transcription regulators, factors of diffusion of interacting with cells and guides them along specific development pathways to receptors for such factors, structural proteins, intracellular signaling molecules and much more. Not surprisingly, the most numerous developmental (more…)
Malformations have many causes. Chromosomal abnormalities account for approximately 25% of all causes, of which the most common autosomal trisomy of chromosomes 21, 18 and 13.
Another 20% are caused by monogenic mutations. Some defects are inherited as autosomal dominant traits, such as achondroplasia or waardenburg syndrome. Nevertheless, the majority of heterozygotes (more…)