Several medicines have proven themselves in the fight against common forms of cancer. We can say that these drugs set a new standard in the treatment of many types of cancer of the prostate, breast and lung. Among these funds there is even one “universal medicine” that can help in various clinical situations. And finally, what is especially important — in some cases, new drugs retain their effectiveness for a year or more, whereas conventional funds usually are not more than a few months.
Here are some tools, which were discussed at the largest Oncology event in the world conference of the American society of clinical Oncology (American Society of Clinical Oncology).
The drug Sitega (Zytiga) manufactured by the pharmaceutical company Janssen Biotech enhanced survival without evidence of progression by an average of 18 months. This result was achieved in clinical trials, which were attended by 1,200 volunteers with advanced prostate cancer. While Sitia used in combination with standard therapy. Currently the drug is approved for the treatment of tumors resistant to hormone therapy.
The study was terminated earlier than planned because the patients taking Sirigu, lived significantly longer than volunteers in the control group. Three years after the start of work was alive 66% of men treated with a new drug, and only 49% of those who received only standard therapy.
The second was attended by 1,900 men whose prostate cancer was first diagnosed in the late stages. And again Sithi addition to standard treatment improved the survival rate after three years was alive 83% of those taking Sirigu and 76% were not taking. In addition, the reception of the new drug reduced the likelihood of recurrence and of serious problems with the bones.
Saiga cause quite a few side effects, in particular, increases blood pressure, but doctors believe that the benefits of this drug exceeds the associated with its use, risks. Month course of the drug in the US costs about 10 thousand dollars.
Drug Alasense (Alecensa, alectinib), manufactured by Roche, was effective tools Calcari (Xalkori, crizotinib) manufactured by Pfizer. The study comprised 303 volunteers with advanced lung cancer and a mutation in the ALK gene, Alesana stopped tumor growth by an average of 26 months, and Calcari — only 11. In addition, Alesana better penetrate into the brain: only 9% of those taking the drug were detected metastases in the brain during the first year of treatment. In the group receiving Calcari, this figure was 41%. Serious side effects and death in patients receiving Lesense also less frequent.
The price of a monthly course of treatment with Alicensee in the United States is 12500$, and Calcari — 10000$.
For the first time representative of a new class of drugs, PARP inhibitors, have demonstrated efficacy in large-scale study among women with inherited mutation in the BRCA gene. This mutation increases the risk of developing breast cancer (BC). PARP inhibitors prevent cancer cells to repair breaks in their DNA. Some of these drugs are already approved as a treatment for certain types of ovarian cancer.
In a recent study of the drug Limpeza (Lynparza, olaparib) manufacturing company AstraZeneca was attended by 302 women whose breast cancer has spread beyond the breast. All participants of the tumor was the type that does not respond to treatment with Herceptin (Herceptin). Half were so-called “triple negative” cancer. All participants previously received chemotherapy, and some tried to take the hormone blockers.
Limpeza moderately distanced the start of the progression of the disease. Patients, taking this drug, the average time without disease progression was 7 months, and those who received one of three common tools for chemotherapy — 4 months. On the background of the use Lanparty most commonly seen side effects such as nausea, fatigue and violation of the blood, however, serious problems occurred less frequently than in the chemotherapy. It is unknown whether Limpeza survival.
Month course of treatment costs 13000$.
Interest and another drug, xeloda (Xeloda, capecitabine), able in some cases to extend the life of patients, whose tumor could not be cured by standard methods. Xeloda available in tablets and it is less toxic than conventional chemotherapeutic drugs.
Universal cure for cancer?
Drug laromustine (larotrectinib), produced by Loxo Oncology Inc. can be used to treat various types of cancer children and adults — but it is effective only in the presence of a specific mutation. This mutation is found in less than 1% of cancer cases, and it is unknown how it will be to detect cancer, because genetic testing of the tumor has not yet become a routine procedure.
In the study of paratrechina involved 50 patients with 17 different types of cancer. 76% of the volunteers unexpectedly large share of responded to treatment and the progress of the disease stopped. Side effects from the drug included fatigue and slight dizziness.
The manufacturer plans to obtain the approval of the Management on sanitary inspection behind quality of foodstuff and medicines (Food and Drug Administration, FDA), based on the results of these tests. Last month, the FDA announced that the drug for immunotherapy Keytruda (Keytruda, pembrolizumab) can be used in both pediatric and adult Oncology practice in the presence of the tumor specific genetic characteristics, but paratrechina should be the first tool designed specifically for this purpose.